Fungal endophytes of needles and twigs from Pinus taeda and Pinus elliotti in Uruguay
Alonso R., Tiscornia S. & Bettucci L. (2011) Fungal endophytes of needles and twigs from Pinus taeda and Pinus elliotti in Uruguay.
Sydowia 63 (2): 141–153
Pinus taeda and Pinus elliotti are the main coniferous species recently planted in Uruguay. These new exotic plantations constitute an important change in the typical prairie landscape of the country. Several studies about the endophytes from needles and twigs of several Pinus species in the northern hemisphere and also of their pathogenic fungi are published. Conversely, little information is available on endophytes and on the incidence of fungi that can cause diseases on Pinus species in South America mainly in Uruguay. Several years ago fungal pathogens causing needle spots were the major problem in Pinus spp. Plantations in Uruguay. Recently, a severe disease, pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell was detected in Pinus nurseries. In this work the fungal endophytic composition of asymptomatic needles and twigs of P. taeda and P. elliotti in Uruguay and pathogens associated with spotted needles were assayed. The most common needle endophytes found in both Pinus species were Lophodermium australe Dearn and Xylariaceae, whereas in twigs Phaeomoniella sp. and Botryosphaeria sp. were the dominant taxa. P. elliotti evidenced a higher resistence to fungal infection than P. taeda.
Key words: Xylaria spp., Cenangium ferruginosum, Phaeomoniella sp., Lophodermium australe, needles pathogens.