Fungal endophytes from vegetative and reproductive tissues of Eugenia uruguayensis in Uruguay
Tiscornia S, Ruiz R. & Bettucci L. (2012) Fungal endophytes from vegetative and reproductive tissues of Eugenia uruguayensis in Uruguay.
Sydowia 64 (2): 313–328
The main purpose of this work was to study the endophytic fungal communities of vegetative and reproductive tissues of Eugenia uruguayensis, a native species of Myrtaceae and to compare them with those of Eucalyptus spp. planted in Uruguay. Identification of fungal isolates was performed according to morphology by means of conventional mycological methods. Molecular identification was used for isolates not sporulating on culture media or those impossible to identify by morphological characters. The endophytic community was dominated by Phomopsis spp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diaporthe phaseolorum. Molecular analysis revealed that sterile isolates corresponded to Xylaria acuta, Xylaria digitata, Xylaria venosula and Xylaria sp. Bark and fruit tissues showed the highest number of species. The mycobiota of vegetative and reproductive organs differed, having in common only 15 % of the taxa. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Pestalotiopsis guepinii were dominant in fruits and Diaporthe phaseolorum in twigs. The highest diversity of species was found in fruits and in leaf blades and the lowest in petioles. The tissue segments infected in neotropical Myrtaceae studied in Uruguay are similar to those found in temperate trees. In Uruguay, Myrtaceae are at the southern limit of their geographical distribution reflecting adaptations to temperate climate. Therefore, it is not surprising that E. uruguayensis has lower rates of infection with similar diversity in endophytic communities to that of tropical trees.
Keywords: native Myrtaceae, Xylaria, Phomopsis, Diaporthe, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.